Date: Tue, 17 Oct 1995 11:16:00 -0700 (PDT)
From: "Ponce, Ana Maria" <A.PONCE@cgnet.com>
Subject: Paper 5: "In Situ Conservation in the area of Colomi,
Cochabamba, Bolivia"  Ing. F. Terrazas    (English Abstract)

Study at ART biodiversity microcenters: Traditional, on site ART
management and utilization among peasant communities
       COLLABORATORS                   FIELD OF EXPERTISE
        Dr. Graham Thiele               Anthropology
        Juan Almanza, Eng.              Agronomist
        Julio Gabriel, Eng.             Breeding and Genetics
        Maria Luisa Ugarte, Eng.        Conservation, ex situ
        Sivia Gonzalez, Eng.            Plant physiology
        Pablo Condori, Eng.             Plant health
Institution:  Instituto Boliviano de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (IBTA)
- Programa de Investigacion de Papa (PROINPA)

INDEX OF CONTENTS:

Sites.
PROVINCE        ZONE/COMMUNITY  ALTITUDE (masl) ART CROPS
Ayopaya         Independencia   3,200-3,400      Oca, Papalisa,
Chapare         Chuchuani*                       Isano, Yacon,Arracacha
Chapare Candelaria*             3,200-3,500      Oca, Papalisa
                Rodeo Alto                       Isano.
                Chimpa Rancho
                Corani Pampa*   1,300-2,300     Arracacha,
                Santa Isabel                    Yacon, Ajipa,Achira
Carrasco        Laime Toro      3,200-3,500     Oca, Papalisa,
                                                Isano, Yacon,Arracacha
* Likely ART biodiversity microcenters in Cochabamba.

Objectives:
       To maintain traditional ART germplasm in peasant
communities in designated biodiversity microcenters by
actively involving farmers.
The Ayopaya, Chapare, Carrasco and Arani provinces of the
Department (state) of Cochabamba stand out for the diversity
of cultivars.  Rea and Morales (1981) managed to identify and
collect. They underscore the variability of oca and isano in the
Colomi and Ayopaya areas. Coincidentally, Cardenas (1985) mentions
Colomi as a traditional oca producing area in Cochabamba.  He
reported specific ecotypes in the area such as the "pili runtu"
cultivar where he evaluated oca, papalisa and isano
collections from  Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
and Bolivia.

Primary source information.
     In 1993-1994 season, visits to 14 rural agricultural fairs in
five provinces of the Department of Cochabamba allowed to establish
production zones for oca (Oxalis tuberosa), papalisa (Ullucus
tuberosum),  isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum), and Andean roots.
Surveys among intermediaries and producers alike on the
origin of the produce they bring to the markets and their
knowledge of other producing zones for oca, papalisa, and
isa?o, as well as on the variability among these crops,
permitted to identify 21 zones and/or communities in three
provinces.  Of thes, six were chosen for on field
verification.

Conclusions
        Primary source data from interviews with farmers and
secondary source information allowed to prioritize 21
communities and zones in the Department of Cochabamba.  Among
these, three were selected after assessment of their
potential to become microcenters for implementing in situ,
institution-supported actions to preserve Andean tuber
biodiversity.  The selected zones included a) Candelaria in
the Colomi Canton, Chapare Province; b) Pocanche - Chuchuani,
in Independence Canton, Ayopaya Province, and c) Laime Toro,
in the Totora Canton, province of Carrasco. The Corani and Santa
Isabel zones were identified as possible biovdiveristy microcenters
for roots like achira, arracacha,yacon and ajipa.
        Peasant households are the keepers of ART's biodiversity.
Both their usefulnesss and tradition explain why these families
preserve and protect their cultivars in spite of the market
socio-economic environment in which they operate to variable
degrees.  Therefore, natural, socio- cultural and economic factors
play a role in deciding whether to preserve, suppress or multiply
given germplasm cultivars.
        Socio-cultural factors include aspects related to dynamics
of the family's germplasm sucha as exchanges of traditional
germplasm at zone and houshold levels, use of traditional
cultivars, authocthonous knowledge and other related technologies.
        Economic or market factors play a role in preserving
biodiversity through acceptance of native cultivars, or by
modifying production levels of the predominant cash varieties.
        Nature has a permanent impact on diversity on farmers'
fields thorugh phenomena such as frost, drought, severe pest
infestation and disease that may cause total crop failure.
However, these very same factors contribute to generate new
varieties as a consequence of the concurring above factors
and peasant household adoption of new morphological varieties
to compensate for nature's adverse impacts.
        In terms of institutional support to the in situ
preservation of biodiversity in peasant communities,efficient
strategies are available that may be put into practice at
biodiversity centers to foster preservation, recovery and increase
of biodiversity.  Successful strategies adapted to farmer
requirements include promotion of annual biodiversity fairs,
restoration of cultivars to their craddle communities, and exchange
of germplasm among households.
         Due to its intercommunity nature, the Fourth Regional
Potato and Andean Roots and Tubers at Colomi provides a unique
opportunity to strengthen regional biodiversity, farmerinteraction,
as well as the exchange of expertise and germplasm, all of which
contribute to the in situ preservation of ART and other crops.